Donald Super influenced the idea that developing a sense of self and realise that you change over time is important when planning your career.
One of Donald Super's greatest contributions to career development has been his emphasis on the importance of the development of self-concept. According to Super, self-concept changes over time, and develops through experience. As such, career development is lifelong.
Super developed the theories and work of colleague Eli Ginzberg – he thought that Ginzberg’s work had weaknesses, which he wanted to address. Super extended Ginzberg’s life and career development stages from three to five, and included different substages.
Super argues that occupational preferences and competencies, along with an individual’s life situations, all change with time and experience. Super developed the concept of vocational maturity, which may or may not correspond to chronological age: people cycle through each of these stages when they go through career transitions.
Super’s five life and career development stages
|Growth||birth-14||Development of self-concept, attitudes, needs and general world of work|
|Exploration||15-24||"Trying out" through classes, work hobbies. Tentative choice and skill development|
|Establishment||25-44||Entry-level skill building and stabilisation through work experience|
|Maintenance||45-64||Continual adjustment process to improve position|
|Decline||65+||Reduced output, prepare for retirement|
Developmental tasks at these different stages
Early adulthood 25-45
Middle adulthood 45-65
|Late adulthood 65+|
|Decline||Giving less time to hobbies||Reducing sports participation||Focusing on essentials||Reducing working hours|
|Maintenance||Verifying current occupational choice||Making occupational position secure||Holding one's own against competition||Keeping what one enjoys|
|Establishment||Getting started in a chosen field||Settling down in a suitable position||Developing new skills||Doing things one has wanted to do|
|Exploration||Learning more about opportunities||Finding desired opportunity||Identifying new tasks to work on||Finding a good retirement place|
|Growth||Developing a realistic self-concept||Learning to relate to others||Accepting one's own limitations||Developing and valuing non-occupational roles|
Super states that in making a vocational choice individuals are expressing their self-concept, or understanding of self, which evolves over time. People seek career satisfaction through work roles in which they can express themselves and further implement and develop their self-concept.
- Brown, D, and Brooks, L (Eds), ‘Career Choice and Development: Applying Contemporary Theories to Practice’, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2002.
- Department of Employment Services, ‘Developmental Theories’, accessed December 2008, (http://does.dc.gov).
Updated 6 Dec 2019